Medical Dictionary Definitions A-Z List
Medical Dictionary Definitions A - Z - «O»:
Osteoid osteoma: A benign tumor of bone tissue.
It emerges most often in the teens or 20s, and is found
most frequently in the femur and in males. Symptoms include
pain, mostly at night. Diagnosis is by X-ray. Most cases do
not require invasive treatment, just the use of aspirin or
Osteology: The study of bones. The branch of anatomy or physical anthropology that deals with bones. Bone-ology....
Osteolytic: Pertaining to the dissolution of bone, especially the loss of calcium from bone. "Punched-out" osteolytic lesions are characteristic of metastatic lung and breast cancer and multiple myeloma....
Osteolytic lesion: A "punched-out" area of severe bone loss. Osteolytic lesions are seen in metastatic lung and breast cancer and multiple myeloma and may cause bone pain, pathologic fractures (bones broken by disease), and hypercalcemia (high blood calcium)....
Osteomalacia: Softening of bone, particularly in the sense of bone weakened by demineralization (the loss of mineral) and most notably by the depletion of calcium from bone.
Osteomalacia may be caused by poor dietary intake or poor absorption of calcium and other minerals needed to harden bones. Os...
Osteomyelitis: Inflammation of the bone due to
example by the bacteria salmonella or staphylococcus. Osteomyelitis
is sometimes a complication of surgery or injury, although infection
can also reach bone tissue through the bloodstream. Both the bone and
the bone marrow may be infe...
Osteonecrosis: Bone death resulting from poor blood
supply to an area of bone. Also known as aseptic necrosis or
Osteopath: An osteopathic
physician who is a Doctor of Osteopathy (D.O.). Osteopathic physicians complete a course of study equivalent to that of an MD at an osteopathic medical school and are trained in the awareness of the effects of body mechanics on health and disease processes. Osteopaths are ...
Osteopathy: A system of therapy founded in the 19th
on the concept that the body can formulate its own remedies against
diseases when the body
is in a normal structural relationship, has a normal environment and
nutrition. While osteopathy takes a "holistic" approach to ...
Osteopenia: Mild thinning of the bone mass, but not as severe as osteoporosis. Osteopenia results when the formation of bone (osteoid synthesis) is not enough to offset normal bone loss (bone lysis). Osteopenia is generally considered the first step along the road to osteoporosis, a serious conditio...
Osteopetrosis: Thickening of the bones which become abnormally dense due an inherited defect in bone resorption -- the process in which old bone is broken down and removed so that new bone can be added to the skeleton. Osteoclasts are the cells responsible for bone resorption. In osteopetrosis the o...
Osteoporosis: Thinning of the bones with reduction
in bone mass due to depletion of calcium and bone protein.
Osteoporosis predisposes a person to fractures, which are often slow
to heal and heal poorly. It is more common in older adults,
particularly post-menopausal women; in patients on stero...
Osteosarcoma: A cancer of the bone that occurs predominantly in adolescents and young adults. It accounts for 5 percent of cancer in children.
The site of the osteosarcoma is the most important prognostic factor since it determines whether the tumor can be surgically removed. Osteosarcoma is very r...
Osteosynthesis: A surgical procedure that stabilizes and joins the ends of fractured (broken) bones by mechanical devices such as metal plates, pins, rods, wires or screws.
Osteosynthesis refers particularly to internal fixation of a fracture by such means, as opposed to external fixation of a frac...
Osteotomy: Taking out part or all of a bone, or
cutting into or through bone. ...