Generic Name: urokinase (URE oh KYE nase)Brand names: Abbokinase, Kinlytic, Abbokinase Open-Cath
Urokinase is a man-made product developed using a protein that occurs naturally in the kidneys. Urokinase is a thrombolytic agent that works by dissolving blood clots.
Urokinase is used to treat blood clots in the lungs.
Urokinase may also be used for other purposes not listed in this medication guide.
Before you receive urokinase, tell your doctor if you have liver or kidney disease, diabetes, heart problems, if you are pregnant or recently gave birth, a history of stroke or stomach bleeding.Tell your caregivers at once if you have a serious side effect such as easy bruising or bleeding, blood in your stools, coughing up blood, chest pain, sudden problems with vision or speech, swelling, discoloration of your fingers or toes, severe stomach pain, weak or shallow breathing, fever, chills, or flu symptoms.
Before you receive urokinase, tell your doctor if you are using a blood thinner such as warfarin (Coumadin), aspirin or an NSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) such as ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil), naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn), and others, or any medication used to prevent blood clots such as Kabikinase, Plavix, Ticlid, Persantine, Streptase, and others.
a brain tumor;
a brain aneurysm (dilated blood vessel);
a bleeding or blood clotting disorder (such as hemophilia);
a condition called arterial hypertension;
if you have had a recent medical emergency requiring CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation);
if you have had a stroke, brain surgery, or spinal surgery within in the past 2 months.
If you have certain conditions, you may need a dose adjustment or special tests to safely use this medication. Before you receive urokinase, tell your doctor if you have:
a history of stroke;
severe liver or kidney disease;
eye problems caused by diabetes;
an infection of the lining of your heart (also called bacterial endocarditis);
a blood clot of your heart;
a recent history of stomach or intestinal bleeding;
if you are pregnant or have had a baby within the past 10 days; or
if you have had surgery or an organ transplant within the past 10 days.
Urokinase is made from human kidney cells and albumin (part of the blood) and it may contain viruses and other infectious agents that can cause disease. Although donated human blood is screened, tested, and treated to reduce the risk of it containing anything that could cause disease, there is still a small possibility it could transmit disease. Talk with your doctor about the risks and benefits of using this medication.
Urokinase is given as an injection through a needle placed into a vein. You will receive this injection in a clinic or hospital setting.
Urokinase is given slowly, usually over a period of 12 hours, using a continuous infusion pump.Your breathing, blood pressure, oxygen levels, and other vital signs will be watched closely while you are receiving urokinase.
Since urokinase is given by a healthcare professional in a clinical setting, you are not likely to miss a dose.
Because urokinase is given in a controlled clinical setting, an overdose is not expected to occur.
Avoid taking aspirin or ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil) to treat a fever shortly after you have received urokinase. These medications can increase your risk of bleeding. Ask your doctor about other methods of treating a fever.
easy bruising or bleeding (nosebleeds, bleeding gums, bleeding from a wound, incision, catheter, or needle injection );
bloody or tarry stools, coughing up blood or vomit that looks like coffee grounds;
chest pain or heavy feeling, pain spreading to the arm or shoulder, nausea, sweating, general ill feeling;
sudden headache or problems with speech, vision, or balance;
fever, chills, flu symptoms, nausea, vomiting, back pain, or stomach pain;
drowsiness, confusion, mood changes, increased thirst, loss of appetite;
swelling, weight gain, feeling short of breath;
urinating less than usual or not at all;
red or purple discoloration of fingers or toes;
weak or shallow breathing, blue-colored lips or fingernails;
dangerously high blood pressure (severe headache, blurred vision, buzzing in your ears, anxiety, confusion, chest pain, shortness of breath, uneven heartbeats, seizure); or
pancreatitis (severe pain in your upper stomach spreading to your back, nausea and vomiting, fast heart rate).
This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Tell your doctor about any unusual or bothersome side effect. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
Usual Adult Dose for Myocardial Infarction:
Lysis of coronary artery thrombi:Prior to beginning urokinase, a bolus of heparin 2500 to 10,000 units IV once should be given. Prior heparin administration should be considered when calculating the heparin dose.Systemic thrombolytic administration:1 to 2 million intl units administered IV once over 15 to 30 minutes. The rate of infusion is limited by side effects (fever, chills, rigors), and may need to be decreased in some patients. Doses up to 3 million intl units have been used to treat acute myocardial infarction (AMI).To determine the response to urokinase, the manufacturer recommends serial angiography every 15 minutes. Maximal coronary artery opening usually occurs 15 to 30 minutes after opening begins.Direct intracoronary artery infusion:Following the heparin bolus, urokinase may be infused into the occluded artery at a rate of 6000 intl units/min for up to 2 hours, with an average total dose of 500,000 intl units administered. Alternatively, some studies have reported administering urokinase infusions at a rate of 20,000 to 25,000 intl units/min for 10 to 20 minutes up to a total dose of 250,000 to 500,000 intl units. It has not been established that intracoronary administration of urokinase during evolving transmural AMI results in salvage of myocardial tissue, nor that it reduces mortality.Heparin therapy (without a loading dose) is recommended when the thrombin time has decreased to less than twice the normal control value.
Usual Adult Dose for Pulmonary Embolism:
Initial: 4400 intl units/kg ideal body weight (IBW) administered as an IV bolus over 10 minutes.Maintenance: 4400 intl units/kg (IBW) /hour administered as a continuous IV infusion for 12 hours.Heparin therapy (without a loading dose) is recommended when the thrombin time has decreased to less than twice the normal control value.
Usual Adult Dose for Deep Vein Thrombosis:
Initial: 4400 intl units/kg ideal body weight (IBW) administered as an IV bolus over 10 minutes.Maintenance: 4400 intl units/kg (IBW) /hour administered as a continuous IV infusion for 72 hours. Treatment may be needed for as long as 10 to 14 days in selected patients.Heparin therapy (without a loading dose) is recommended when the thrombin time has decreased to less than twice the normal control value.
Usual Adult Dose for Thrombotic/Thromboembolic Disorder:
IV catheter clearance:When the following procedure is used for thrombolysis of a central venous catheter, the patient should be asked to hold his/her breath at end-exhalation any time the catheter is not connected to IV tubing, a heparin lock, or a syringe (to avoid air embolism).Once a clot is suspected (after gentle aspiration of the affected catheter with a 10 mL syringe), 5000 intl units urokinase in a 1 mL tuberculin syringe may be slowly and gently injected, using only an amount equivalent to the volume of the catheter. A 5 or 10 mL syringe may be used to gently aspirate from the catheter every 5 minutes. If the catheter is not open within 30 minutes, the catheter may be capped allowing urokinase to dwell inside for 30 to 60 minutes before again attempting to aspirate. A second injection may be necessary in resistant cases.Once patency is restored, aspiration and removal of 5 mL of blood is recommended to remove all drug and clot residual. Flushing the catheter with normal saline injection is then recommended.
The following drugs can interact with urokinase. Tell your doctor if you are using any of these:
a blood thinner such as warfarin (Coumadin);
aspirin or an NSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) such as ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil), naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn), diclofenac (Cataflam, Voltaren), etodolac (Lodine), indomethacin (Indocin), ketoprofen (Orudis), and others; or
medication used to prevent blood clots, such as alteplase (Activase), anistreplase (Eminase), clopidogrel (Plavix), dipyridamole (Persantine), streptokinase (Kabikinase, Streptase), or ticlopidine (Ticlid).
This list is not complete and there may be other drugs that can interact with urokinase. Tell your doctor about all your prescription and over-the-counter medications, vitamins, minerals, herbal products, and drugs prescribed by other doctors. Do not start a new medication without telling your doctor.