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Definition of «Y chromosome»

Y chromosome: The sex chromosome found together with an X chromosome in most normal males. Once thought to be a genetic wasteland, the Y now is known to contain at least 20 genes, some of them unique to the Y including the male-determining gene and male fitness genes that are active only in the testis and are thought responsible for the formation of sperm. Other genes on the Y have counterparts on the X chromosome, are active in many body tissues and play crucial "housekeeping" roles with the cell.

A number of specific genes have been Y-linked including:

  • ASMTY (which stands for acetylserotonin methyltransferase),
  • TSPY (testis-specific protein),
  • IL3RAY (interleukin-3 receptor),
  • SRY (sex-determining region),
  • TDF (testis determining factor),
  • ZFY (zinc finger protein), PRKY (protein kinase, Y-linked),
  • AMGL (amelogenin),
  • CSF2RY (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor, alpha subunit on the Y chromosome),
  • ANT3Y (adenine nucleotide translocator-3 on the Y),
  • AZF2 (azoospermia factor 2),
  • BPY2 (basic protein on the Y chromosome),
  • AZF1 (azoospermia factor 1),
  • DAZ (deleted in azoospermia),
  • RBM1 (RNA binding motif protein, Y chromosome, family 1, member A1),
  • RBM2 (RNA binding motif protein 2) and
  • UTY (ubiquitously transcribed TPR gene on Y chromosome).

The Y is a useful chromosome for tracking men because it is transmitted unchanged from father to son. The Y escapes the intergenerational shuffle (recombination) that affects genes on the X chromosome and the remainder of the genome. All men have essentially the same Y chromosome. It is thought that in our small ancestral population some men had no children or only daughters, so that some Y chromosomes disappeared until only one was left. This ubiquitous Y has the same DNA in every man on earth except for the mutation that crops up every millenium and is then inherited by all males descended from that man.

For More Information «Y chromosome»

  • Y-chromosome: Definition from Answers.com

    Library > Literature & Language > Dictionary or Y chromosome ( wī ' krō ' mə-sōm ' ) n. The sex chromosome associated with male characteristics in mammals, not ...

  • Y chromosome - Genetics Home Reference

    The Y chromosome is one of the two sex chromosomes in humans (the other is the X chromosome). The sex chromosomes form one of the 23 pairs of human ...

  • Y chromosome - Psychology Wiki

    The Y chromosome is one of the two sex chromosomes in humans and most other mammals. (The other is t

  • Y chromosome - Wikinfo

    Overview . Most mammals have one pair of sex chromosomes in each cell (though for example the platypus has five pairs). Males have one Y chromosome and one X chromosome ...

  • Sex Chromosomes

    Although 95% of the Y chromosome lies between the pseudoautosomal regions, fewer than 80 genes have been found here. Over half of this region is genetically-barren ...