Medical Dictionary Definitions A-Z List
Medical Dictionary Definitions A - Z - «G»:
Glucocerebrosidase deficiency: Causes type 1 Gaucher disease, a progressive genetic disease due to an enzyme defect. The enzyme, glucocerebrosidase, is needed to break down the chemical glucocerebroside.
The enzyme defect leads to the progressive accumulation of glucocerebroside in the spleen, liv...
Glucocorticoid: A hormone that predominantly affects
the metabolism of carbohydrates and, to a lesser extent, fats and proteins (and has other
effects). Glucocorticoids are made in the outside portion (the cortex) of the adrenal
gland and chemically classed as steroids. Cortisol is the major natural...
Glucosamine: A molecule derived from the sugar glucose by
the addition of an amino (NH2) group, glucosamine is a component of a
number of structures including the blood group substances and
Glucosamine is a nutritional supplement.
Glucosamine may improve symptoms of pain and stiffness...
Glucose: The simple sugar (monosaccharide) that serves as the chief source of energy in the body. Glucose is the principal sugar the body makes. The body makes glucose from proteins, fats and, in largest part, carbohydrates. Glucose is carried to each cell through the bloodstream. Cells, however, c...
Glucose tolerance test
Glucose tolerance test: A blood test done to make the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. The test may also be done for other purposes such as to diagnose hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) or a malabsorption syndrome in which sugar is not absorbed properly through the intestines into the bloodstream.
Glucose tolerance, impaired
Glucose tolerance, impaired: See: Impaired glucose tolerance....
Glucose, fasting blood
Glucose, fasting blood: A method for learning how
much glucose (sugar)
is in a blood sample taken after an overnight fast. The
test is commonly used in the detection of diabetes
mellitus. A blood sample
taken in a lab, doctor's office, or hospital. The test is
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD): Deficiency of G6PD is
the commonest disease-causing enzyme defect in humans affecting an estimated 400 million
people. The G6PD gene is on the X chromosome. Males with the enzyme deficiency develop
anemia due to breakup of their red blood cells when they are...
Glucuronosyltransferase, UDP-: A liver enzyme essential to the disposal of bilirubin (the chemical
that results from the normal breakdown of hemoglobin from red blood cells).
An abnormality of this enzyme (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase) results in a condition called Gilbert's disease in which there a...
Glutamate: A form of glutamic acid. See: Glutamic acid....
Glutamic acid: An amino acid, one of the 20 building blocks of protein. A nonessential amino acid, glutamic acid is present in many animal and plant proteins. It is involved in ammonia metabolism and serves as a neurotransmitter. Glutamic acid was isolated from wheat gluten in 1866 and first synthes...
Glutamine: An amino acid, one of the 20 building blocks of protein. Glutamine is present in plant and animal proteins. It can be synthesized by the body and is therefore not essential to the diet. Glutamine serves as an important carrier of ammonia and contributes it to the formation of urea and pur...
Glutathione S-transferase: A family of enzymes that utilize glutathione in reactions contributing to the transformation of a wide range of compounds, including carcinogens, therapeutic drugs, and products of oxidative stress. These enzymes play a key role in the detoxification of such substances.
Glutathione S-transferase omega-1
Glutathione S-transferase omega-1: An enzyme that remarkably influences the age of onset of symptoms of two common degenerative brain disorders -- both Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease.
Glutathione S-transferase omega-1 (GSTO1) belongs to a family of enzymes that utilize glutathione in react...
Gluteal: Pertaining to the buttock region formed by the gluteal muscles (the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, and gluteus minimus). The gluteal muscles extend the thighs and help support the body in standing. The gluteal muscles also serve in hip abduction (spreading the legs). See: Gluteus maximus....