Medical Dictionary Definitions A-Z List
Medical Dictionary Definitions A - Z - «D»:
Diachronic: The word "diachronic" is from the Greek dia-,
through + chronos, time = through time. As opposed to synchronic, at one point in time....
Diachronic study: A study done over the course of time. For example, a
longitudinal study of children with Down syndrome (trisomy 21) might involve the study of
100 children with this condition from birth to 10 years of age. Also called a longitudinal
study. The opposite of a synchronic (cross-secti...
Diagnosis: 1 The nature of a disease; the identification of an illness.
2 A conclusion or decision reached by diagnosis. The diagnosis is rabies.
3 The identification of any problem. The diagnosis was a plugged IV.
The word diagnosis comes directly from the Greek, but the meaning has been changed. T...
Diagnosis, differential: The process of weighing the probability of one disease versus that of other diseases possibly accounting for a patient's illness. The differential diagnosis of rhinitis (a runny nose) includes allergic rhinitis (hayfever), the abuse of nasal decongestants and, of course, the...
Diagnosis, retrospective: See: Retrodiagnosis....
Diagnostic mammogram: An X-ray of the breast done to evaluate:
Abnormalities seen or suspected on a prior screening mammogram;
Subjective or objectives abnormalities in the breast such as a lump, pain, thickening, nipple discharge or a inexplicable change in breast size or shape;
Breasts for which ...
Dialectical behavioral therapy
Dialectical behavioral therapy: A mode of treatment designed for people with borderline personality disorder (BPD), particularly those with suicidal behavior. Dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT) aims to help people with BPD to validate their emotions and behaviors, examine those behaviors and emot...
Dialysis: The process of cleansing the blood by passing it
through a special machine. Dialysis is necessary when the kidneys are not able to filter
the blood. Dialysis allows patients with kidney failure a chance to live productive lives.
There are two types of dialysis: hemodialysis and peritoneal ...
Dialysis machine: A machine that filters a
patient's blood to remove excess water and waste products
when the kidneys are damaged, dysfunctional, or missing.
Blood is drawn through a specially created vein in the
forearm, which is called an arterio-venous (AV) fistula.
From the AV fistula, bloo...
Dialysis, peritoneal: Technique that uses the
patient's own body tissues inside of the belly (abdominal cavity) to act as a filter.
The intestines lie in the abdominal cavity, the space between the abdominal wall and the
spine. A plastic tube called a "dialysis catheter" is placed through the
Diaper rash: Also called "diaper dermatitis," a diaper rash is a skin inflammatory reaction localized to the area usually covered by the diaper.
It can have many causes including infections (yeast, bacterial or viral), friction
irritation, chemical allergies (perfumes, soaps), sweat and pl...
Diaper rash, yeast
Diaper rash, yeast: Infection in the diaper area caused by a yeast formerly called Monilia and now called Candida. These organisms are part of the germs normally found in various parts of the body and ordinarily do not cause any symptoms.
Certain conditions, such as antibiotic use or excessive mois...
Diaphragm (contraceptive): A barrier method of contraception that is available by prescription only and must be sized by a health professional to achieve a proper fit.
The diaphragm has a dual mechanism to prevent a pregnancy. A dome-shaped rubber disk with a flexible rim covers the cervix so sperm ...
Diaphragm (muscle): The muscle that separates the chest (thoracic) cavity from the abdomen. The diaphragm is the main muscle of respiration. Contraction of the diaphragm muscle expands the lungs during inspiration when one is breathing air in. We rely heavily on the diaphragm for our respiratory fun...
Diaphragm pacing: A procedure to help patients with spinal cord injuries to breathe. Their breathing is helped by setting the respiratory rate by electrical stimulation (pacing) of the phrenic nerve. The pacing is accomplished via electrodes surgically implanted into the diaphragm, which is innervat...