Medical Dictionary Definitions A-Z List
Medical Dictionary Definitions A - Z - «A»:
Acetabular labrum: A ring of fibrocartilage (fibrous cartilage) that runs around the acetabulum (cup) of the hip joint and increases its depth. The head of the femur (the bone in the thigh) fits in the acetabulum. The labrum deepens this cavity and effectively increases the surface (and strength) o...
Acetabulum: The cup-shaped socket of the hip
joint. In fact, in Latin an "acetabulum" is cup, a vinegar cup. The
acetabulum is a feature of the pelvis. The head (upper end) of the
femur (the thighbone) fits into the acetabulum and articulates with
it, forming a ball-and-socket joint....
Acetaminophen: A pain reliever and fever reducer. Brand name: Tylenol. The exact mechanism of action of acetaminophen is not known. Acetaminophen relieves pain by elevating the pain threshold (that is, by requiring a greater amount of pain to develop before it is felt by a person). Acetaminophen red...
Acetate: A molecular ion derived from acetic acid. The formula of acetate is CH3COO-....
Acetic acid: The acid most commonly associated with vinegar. Acetic acid is a two-carbon carboxylic acid. Its formula is: CH3COOH. It is the most commercially important organic acid and is used in the manufacture of a broad range of chemical products, such as plastics and insecticides....
Acetoacetate: A molecular ion, CH3COCH2COO-, derived from acetoacetic acid....
Acetone: In the body, a chemical that is formed when
the body uses fat instead of glucose (sugar) for energy. The
formation of acetone means that cells lack insulin or cannot
effectively use available insulin to burn glucose for energy. Acetone
passes through the body into the urine as one of th...
Acetyl CoA: See: Acetyl coenzyme A....
Acetyl coenzyme A
Acetyl coenzyme A: An important metabolic intermediate, derived from various pathways, such as glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation, and degradation of some amino acids. It also represents a key intermediate in lipid biosynthesis. Commonly referred to as acetyl CoA....
Acetyl phosphate: A molecular ion which plays a role in the synthesis of the four-carbon fatty acid, butyric acid. The formula for acetyl phosphate is: CH3COPO42-....
Acetylcholine: A key chemical in neurons (nerve cells) that acts as a neurotransmitter and carries information across the synaptic cleft, the space between two nerve cells. Abbreviated ACh....
Acetylcholinesterase: An enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine at the synaptic cleft (the space between two nerve cells) so the next nerve impulse can be transmitted across the synaptic gap. Pesticides of the organophosphate and carbamate types act to paralyze and kill insects b...
Acetylcysteine: An antioxidant drug used to reduce the thickness of mucus and ease its removal. It is also used to reverse the toxicity of high doses of acetaminophen. Acetylcysteine with hydration significantly reduces the risk of contrast nephropathy in patients with chronic renal insufficiency. A...
Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin)
Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin):
Aspirin is a good example of a tradename that has entered into the language. Aspirin
was once the Bayer trademark for acetylsalicylic acid.
On Aug. 10, 1897 young Bayer researcher, Felix Hoffman, first
synthesized acetylsalicylic acid.
Bayer registered the trademark...
ACG2: Achondrogenesis type II....