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Drugs reference index «Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate»

Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate

Pronunciation: (SO-dee-uhm pah-lee-STYE-reen SULL-fuh-nate)Class: Potassium-removing resin

Trade Names:Kayexalate- Powder Finely powdered sodium polystyrene sulfonate. Sodium content approximately 100 mg (4.1 mEq)/g

Trade Names:SPS- Suspension 15 g/60 mL. Sodium content 1.5 g (65 mEq)

Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate (Canada)

Pharmacology

Resin that exchanges sodium ions for potassium in large intestine.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

Sodium polystyrene sulfonate is not absorbed from the GI tract.

Onset

Onset of action is hours to days.

Indications and Usage

Treatment of hyperkalemia.

Contraindications

Hypokalemia.

Dosage and Administration

Adults

PO or via NG tube 15 g 1 to 4 times/day. PR 30 to 50 g every 6 h has been given as daily enema.

Children

PO Calculate children's dose by exchange ratio of 1 mEq potassium per gram of resin. (1 g/kg every 6 h has been recommended.)

Storage/Stability

Store at room temperature. Store repackaged product in refrigerator and use within 14 days. Do not store freshly prepared suspensions longer than 24 h. Do not heat, because this may alter exchange of properties of resin.

Drug Interactions

Digitalis

If hypokalemia occurs, likelihood of toxic effects of digoxin may be increased.

Nonabsorbable cation donating antacids and laxatives (eg, aluminum carbonate, magnesium hydroxide)

Systemic alkalosis has occurred. Potassium exchange capability of sodium polystyrene sulfonate may be reduced. Intestinal obstruction due to concretions of aluminum hydroxide when used in combination has occurred.

Laboratory Test Interactions

None well documented.

Adverse Reactions

GI

Gastric irritation; anorexia; nausea; vomiting; constipation; fecal impaction.

Metabolic

Hypokalemia; hypocalcemia; sodium retention.

Precautions

Pregnancy

Category C .

Lactation

Undetermined.

Electrolyte abnormalities

Serious potassium deficiency can occur. Sodium polystyrene sulfonate is not totally selective for potassium and small amounts of magnesium and calcium can be lost. Use with caution in patients who cannot tolerate even small increase in sodium load (ie, severe CHF, severe hypertension, marked edema).

Severe hyperkalemia

Treatment with this drug alone may be insufficient to rapidly correct severe hyperkalemia associated with states of rapid tissue breakdown (eg, burns, renal failure) or hyperkalemia so marked as to constitute medical emergency.

Overdosage

Symptoms

Nausea, vomiting, constipation (fecal impaction), hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, sodium retention.

Patient Information

  • Tell patient not to mix medication with fruit juice.
  • Instruct patient to shake bottle well before taking medication.
  • Advise patient to report any water retention or edema.
  • Instruct patient to report these symptoms to health care provider: anorexia, nausea, vomiting, any changes in bowel function.

Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health.

  • Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate Prescribing Information (FDA)
  • Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate Powder MedFacts Consumer Leaflet (Wolters Kluwer)
  • sodium polystyrene sulfonate Concise Consumer Information (Cerner Multum)
  • sodium polystyrene sulfonate Advanced Consumer (Micromedex) - Includes Dosage Information
  • Kayexalate Prescribing Information (FDA)
  • Kionex Prescribing Information (FDA)

See Also...