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Drugs reference index «Nilotinib»

Nilotinib

Pronunciation: (nye-LOE-ti-nib)Class: Protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor

Trade Names:Tasigna- Capsules 200 mg

Pharmacology

Binds to and stabilizes the inactive conformation of the kinase domain of Abl protein.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

C max is reached 3 h after oral administration. Steady state is reached in about 8 days. Bioavailability is increased when given with a meal. Compared with fasting, the AUC is increased 82% when given 30 min after a high-fat meal.

Distribution

Serum protein binding is approximately 98%.

Metabolism

Main metabolic pathways are oxidation and hydroxylation. The metabolites are inactive.

Elimination

Elimination half-life is approximately 17 h. Approximately 93% of the administered dose is eliminated in feces within 7 days.

Special Populations

Renal Function Impairment

Has not been investigated, but a decrease in total body Cl is not anticipated.

Hepatic Function Impairment

Nilotinib exposure is increased. A lower starting dose is recommended in these patients.

Age, body weight, race, and gender

Pharmacokinetics are not affected.

Indications and Usage

Treatment of chronic-phase and accelerated-phase Philadelphia chromosome–positive chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in adult patients resistant or intolerant to prior therapy that included imatinib.

Contraindications

Hypokalemia; hypomagnesemia; long QT syndrome.

Dosage and Administration

Adults

PO 400 mg twice daily.

Dosage Adjustments for Neutropenia and ThrombocytopeniaAdults

PO

Chronic-phase or accelerated-phase CML at 400 mg twice daily

If absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is less than 1 times 10 9 /L and/or platelet count is less than 50 times 10 9 /L, stop nilotinib and monitor blood cell counts. Resume within 2 wk at prior dosage if ANC is more than 1 times 10 9 /L and platelets are more than 50 times 10 9 /L. If blood cell counts remain low for longer than 2 wk, reduce dosage to 400 mg once daily.

Dosage Adjustments for QT Interval ProlongationAdults

PO

ECGs with QTc more than 480 msec

Withhold dose and perform an analysis of serum potassium and magnesium. If below lower limit of normal, correct with supplements to within normal limits. Review concomitant medication usage. If QTcF returns to less than 450 msec and to within 20 msec of baseline, resume treatment within 2 wk at prior dosage. If QTcF is between 450 and 480 msec after 2 wk, reduce dosage to 400 mg once daily. If, following dosage reduction to 400 mg once daily, the QTcF returns to more than 480 msec, discontinue nilotinib. An ECG should be repeated approximately 7 days after any dosage adjustment.

Dosage Adjustments for Selected Nonhematologic Laboratory AbnormalitiesAdults

PO

Elevated serum lipase or amylase of grade 3 or more

Withhold nilotinib and monitor serum lipase or amylase. Resume treatment at 400 mg once daily if serum lipase or amylase returns to grade 1 or less.

Elevated bilirubin of grade 3 or more

Withhold nilotinib and monitor bilirubin. Resume treatment at 400 mg once daily if bilirubin returns to grade 1 or less.

Elevated hepatic transaminases of grade 3 or more

Withhold nilotinib and monitor hepatic transaminases. Resume treatment at 400 mg once daily if hepatic transaminases return to grade 1 or less.

Dosage Adjustments for Other Nonhematologic ToxicitiesAdults

PO If moderate or severe nonhematologic toxicity occurs, withhold nilotinib and resume treatment at 400 mg once daily when toxicity resolves. Consider escalation of dosage to 400 mg twice daily.

Dosage Adjustments With Coadministration of Strong CYP3A4 InducersAdults

PO If a strong CYP3A4 inducer cannot be avoided, the nilotinib dosage may need to be increased, depending on patient tolerability. If the strong inducer is discontinued, reduce the nilotinib dosage to the indicated dosage.

Dosage Adjustments With Coadministration of Strong CYP3A4 InhibitorsAdults

PO If a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor cannot be avoided, a dosage reduction to 400 mg once daily is predicted to adjust the AUC to the value observed without administration of an inhibitor. If the strong inhibitor is discontinued, after a washout period, adjust the nilotinib dosage upward to the indicated dosage. Closely monitor for prolongation of the QT interval.

General Advice

  • Continue treatment as long as there is no evidence of progression or unacceptable toxicity.
  • Do not administer with food. Food should not be consumed for at least 2 h before or at least 1 h after a dose is taken.
  • Administer twice daily at approximately 12-h intervals.

Storage/Stability

Store at 59° to 86°F.

Drug Interactions

CYP2B6, CYP2C8, and CYP2C9 substrates

Concentrations of drugs that are substrates for these enzymes may be reduced; administer with caution.

CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, and UGT1A1 substrates

Concentrations of drugs that are substrates for these enzymes may be elevated; administer with caution. Avoid warfarin because it is a substrate for CYP2C9 and CYP3A4.

Food

The bioavailability of nilotinib is increased with food ingestion. Compared with the fasted state, AUC increased 82% when the dose was given 30 min after a high-fat meal. Nilotinib should not be taken with food. No food should be ingested at least 2 h before and at least 1 h after the dose is taken.

Grapefruit juice

Because nilotinib concentrations may be elevated, avoid grapefruit juice.

Nevirapine

Nilotinib plasma concentrations and pharmacologic effects may be reduced by nevirapine. Avoid coadministration of nilotinib and nevirapine. If concomitant use cannot be avoided, monitor the response of the patient and adjust the nilotinib dose as needed.

P-glycoprotein inhibitors (eg, ranolazine)

Nilotinib concentrations may be increased. Use with caution. Monitor the response of the patient and adjust the nilotinib dose as needed.

P-glycoprotein substrates

Concentrations of drugs that are a substrate for P-glycoprotein may be increased by nilotinib. Use with caution. Monitor the response of the patient and adjust the dose of these agents as needed.

QT interval–prolonging drugs (eg, antiarrhythmic agents [eg, amiodarone, disopyramide, procainamide, quinidine, sotalol], bepridil, chloroquine, clarithromycin, halofantrine, haloperidol, methadone, moxifloxacin, paliperidone, perflutren, pimozide, tetrabenazine, tricyclic antidepressants [eg, doxepin])

Because of the risk of QT interval prolongation, concomitant use of nilotinib with QT interval–prolonging drugs should be avoided. If treatment with of any of these agents is required, interrupt nilotinib treatment. If withholding nilotinib treatment is not possible, closely monitor for QT interval prolongation.

St. John's wort

Because nilotinib concentrations may be reduced, avoid St. John's wort.

Strong CYP3A4 inducers (eg, carbamazepine, dexamethasone, phenobarbital, phenytoin, rifabutin, rifampin, rifapentine)

Nilotinib concentrations may be reduced, leading to subtherapeutic levels. Avoid coadministration.

Strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (eg, atazanavir, clarithromycin, delavirdine, indinavir, itraconazole, ketoconazole, nefazodone, nelfinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir, telithromycin, trazodone, voriconazole)

Nilotinib concentrations may be elevated, increasing the risk of toxicity.

Laboratory Test Interactions

None well documented.

Adverse Reactions

Cardiovascular

Flushing, hypertension, palpitations, prolonged QT (1% to 10%); atrial fibrillation, bradycardia, cardiac failure, cardiac murmur, cardiomegaly, coronary artery disease, hemorrhagic shock, hypertensive crisis, MI, pericardial effusion, pericarditis, thrombosis, ventricular dysfunction.

CNS

Headache (31%); fatigue (28%); pyrexia (24%); asthenia (14%); dizziness, insomnia, paresthesia, vertigo (1% to 10%); intracranial hemorrhage.

Dermatologic

Rash (33%); pruritus (29%); alopecia, dry skin, eczema, erythema, hyperhidrosis, night sweats, urticaria (1% to 10%); erythema nodosum, exfoliative rash.

EENT

Nasopharyngitis (16%).

GI

Nausea (31%); diarrhea (22%); constipation, vomiting (21%); abdominal pain (13%); abdominal discomfort, anorexia, dyspepsia, flatulence (1% to 10%); GI hemorrhage, GI ulcer perforation, hematemesis, retroperitoneal hemorrhage.

Genitourinary

Hematuria, renal failure.

Hematologic-Lymphatic

Neutropenia, thrombocytopenia (37%); anemia (23%); febrile neutropenia, pancytopenia (1% to 10%); leukocytosis, thrombocytosis.

Hepatic

Hepatitis, hepatomegaly, hepatotoxicity, jaundice.

Lab Tests

Elevated lipase (17%); hyperglycemia (11%); elevated bilirubin, hypophosphatemia (10%); hypokalemia (5%); elevated ALT, hyperkalemia, hypocalcemia (4%); elevated alkaline phosphatase, hyponatremia (3%); hypomagnesemia, increased blood amylase, increased blood creatine phosphokinase, increased GGT (1% to 10%); decreased albumin, elevated AST (1%).

Musculoskeletal

Arthralgia (18%); pain in extremities (16%); muscle spasm, myalgia (14%); bone pain (13%); back pain (12%); musculoskeletal chest pain, musculoskeletal pain (1% to 10%).

Respiratory

Cough (17%); dyspnea (11%); dysphonia exertional, dyspnea (1% to 10%); interstitial lung disease, plural effusion, pulmonary edema.

Miscellaneous

Peripheral edema (11%); sepsis.

Precautions

Warnings

QT interval prolongation and sudden deaths have been reported. Do not use nilotinib in patients with hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, or long QT syndrome. Correct hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia prior to starting therapy. A dose reduction is recommended in patients with hepatic impairment.

Monitor

Monitor QTc at baseline, 7 days after starting treatment, and periodically thereafter, as well as following dosage adjustments. Periodically monitor for hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia. Perform CBC every 2 wk during the first 2 mo of treatment and then monthly thereafter, or as clinically indicated. Periodically monitor serum calcium, magnesium, sodium, phosphate, and potassium. Check hepatic function tests and serum lipase monthly or as clinically indicated. Closely monitor for QT interval prolongation.

Pregnancy

Category D .

Lactation

Undetermined.

Children

Safety and efficacy not established.

Cardiac disorders

Use with caution in patients with relevant cardiac disorders.

Lactose intolerance

Because the capsules contain lactose, nilotinib therapy is not recommended in patients with hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, severe lactase deficiency, or glucose-galactose malabsorption.

Hepatotoxicity

Elevations in AST/ALT, bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase may occur.

Myelosuppression

Grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, and anemia can occur.

Serum electrolytes

Hyperkalemia, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hyponatremia, and hypophosphatemia may occur.

Serum lipase

Elevation may occur; use with caution in patients with a history of pancreatitis.

Overdosage

Symptoms

No cases of overdose have been reported.

Patient Information

  • Advise patients to take on an empty stomach. Instruct patients not to consume food for at least 2 h before or at least 1 h after a dose is taken.
  • Advise patients to take medication twice daily at approximately 12-h intervals.
  • Advise patient to avoid grapefruit, grapefruit juice, and any supplement containing grapefruit extract.
  • Instruct patients to contact health care provider immediately if they feel faint or have an irregular heartbeat.
  • Instruct patients to inform health care provider if they have any heart problems, irregular heartbeat, liver problems, pancreatitis, low magnesium or potassium levels, QTc prolongation or family history of QTc prolongation, or a severe problem with lactose or other sugars.
  • Instruct patient not to open capsules and to swallow them whole.
  • Advise women of childbearing potential to use effective contraceptives.

Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health.

  • Nilotinib MedFacts Consumer Leaflet (Wolters Kluwer)
  • nilotinib Advanced Consumer (Micromedex) - Includes Dosage Information
  • Tasigna Prescribing Information (FDA)
  • Tasigna Consumer Overview

See Also...