Generic Name: mannitol (MAN it ol)Brand names: Osmitrol, Resectisol
Mannitol is a diuretic.
Mannitol is used to force urine production in people with acute (sudden) kidney failure. Increased urine production helps prevent the kidneys from shutting down, and also speeds up elimination of certain toxic substances in the body.
Mannitol is also used to reduce swelling and pressure inside the eye or around the brain.
Mannitol may also be used for other purposes not listed in this medication guide.
severe or long-term kidney disease;
swelling or congestion in your lung;
bleeding in your brain that is not related to surgery;
severe dehydration; or
if your kidneys have already shut down and you are unable to urinate.
Mannitol is given as an injection through a needle placed into a vein. You will receive this injection in a clinic or hospital setting. The medicine must be given slowly through an IV infusion, and you may receive the medication around the clock.To be sure mannitol is helping your condition and not causing harmful effects, your blood will need to be tested often. This will help your doctor determine how long to treat you with mannitol. Your heart function will also need to be tested.
Since mannitol is given as needed by a healthcare professional, it is not likely that you will miss a dose.
Since mannitol is given by a healthcare professional, it is not likely that you will receive an overdose.
Follow your doctor's instructions about any restrictions on food, beverages, or activity while you are being treated with mannitol.
dry mouth, increased thirst, blurred vision, or seizure (convulsions);
swelling, pain, or skin changes where the medicine was injected;
chest pain, fast heart rate;
feeling like you might pass out;
feeling short of breath, even with mild exertion;
swelling, rapid weight gain; or
if you stop urinating.
Less serious side effects may include:
mild skin rash.
This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Tell your doctor about any unusual or bothersome side effect. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
Usual Adult Dose for Oliguria:
Renal function test dose prior to initiation of treatment: 0.2 g/kg IV over 3 to 5 min resulting in a urine flow of at least 30 to 50 mL/hr. A second test dose may be administered if the urine flow does not increase. If no response is seen following the second test dose, the patient should be reevaluated.Treatment: 300 to 400 mg/kg (21 to 28 g for a 70 kg patient) or up to 100 g of 15% to 20% solution IV once. Treatment should not be repeated in patients with persistent oliguria.Prevention (for use during cardiovascular and other types of surgery): 50 to 100 g IV. usually a 5 , 10, or 20% solution is used depending on the fluid requirements of the patient.
Usual Adult Dose for Cerebral Edema:
0.25 to 2 g/kg as a 15 to 20% solution IV over at least 30 min administered not more frequently than every 6 to 8 hrs.To yield a satisfactory reduction in intracranial pressure, the osmotic gradient between the blood and cerebrospinal fluid should remain approximately 20 mOsmol.In small &/or debilitated patients 500 mg/kg may be sufficient.
Usual Pediatric Dose for Oliguria:
Renal function test dose prior to initiation of treatment: 0.2 g/kg or 6 g/m2 of a 15 or 25% solution IV over 3 to 5 min to produce urine flow of at least 30 to 50 mL/hr. A second test dose may be administered if the urine flow does not increase. If no response is seen following the second test dose, the patient should be reevaluated.Treatment dose: 1 to 2 g/kg or 20 to 60 mg/m2 of a 15 or 20% solution IV over 2 to 6 hrs once. Treatment should not be repeated in patients with persistent oliguria.
Usual Pediatric Dose for Cerebral Edema:
Intraocular Pressure: 1 to 2 g/kg or 30 to 60 g/m2 IV over 30 to 60 min once. In small &/or debilitated patients a dose of 500 mg/kg may be sufficient.Cerebral Edema: 1 to 2 g/kg or 30 to 60 g/m2 IV over 30 to 60 min. In small &/or debilitated patients a dose of 500 mg/kg may be sufficient.
There may be other drugs that can interact with mannitol. Tell your doctor about all your prescription and over-the-counter medications, vitamins, minerals, herbal products, and drugs prescribed by other doctors. Do not start a new medication without telling your doctor.