Trade Names:Epsom Salt- Granules see care instructions
Trade Names:Magnesium sulfate- Injection 4% (0.325 mEq/mL)- Injection 8% (0.65 mEq/mL)- Injection 12.5% (1 mEq/mL)- Injection 50% (4 mEq/mL)
Magnesium has CNS depressant effect; prevents/controls seizures by blocking neuromuscular transmission and decreasing amount of acetylcholine liberated at end plate by motor nerve impulse. Orally it attracts/retains water in intestinal lumen, thereby increasing intraluminal pressure and inducing urge to defecate.
Seizure prevention and control in severe preeclampsia or eclampsia without deleterious CNS depression in mother, fetus, or newborn; replacement therapy in magnesium deficiency, especially in acute hypomagnesemia accompanied by signs of tetany similar to those observed in hypocalcemia; corrects or prevents hypomagnesemia by addition to total parenteral nutrition admixture.
Control of hypertension, encephalopathy, and convulsions in children with acute nephritis; inhibition of premature labor; treatment of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias; prevention and treatment of nutritional magnesium deficiency; laxative (oral).
Toxemia of pregnancy during 2 h preceding delivery; MI; myocardial damage; heartblock.
IM/IV 10 to 14 g of magnesium sulfate (as a combination of IM and IV administration) appropriately diluted.HyperalimentationAdults
TPN Maintenance dose ranges from 8 to 24 mEq (1 to 3 g) daily.Infants
TPN Maintenance dose ranges from 2 to 10 mEq (0.25 to 1.25 g) daily.Laxative
Usually 1-time dose.Adults
PO 10 to 15 g.Children
PO 5 to 10 g.Magnesium DeficiencyMild magnesium deficiency
IM Usual dose is 1 g, equivalent to 8.12 mEq magnesium (2 mL of 50% solution) injected every 6 h for 4 doses, equivalent to a total of 32.5 mEq of magnesium per 24 h.Severe hypomagnesemia
As much as 250 mg (approximately 2 mEq) per kg (0.5 mL of the 50% solution) may be given within a period of 4 h if necessary. Alternatively, 5 g (approximately 40 mEq) can be added to 1 L of dextrose 5% injection or sodium chloride 0.9% injection, for slow IV infusion over a 3-h period. Use caution so as not to exceed the renal excretion capacity.Seizures Associated with Epilepsy, Glomerulonephritis, or HypothyroidismAdults
IM/IV 1 g.
Store granules and injection at ambient room temperature (59° to 86°F).
Administer magnesium sulfate with extreme caution because serious changes in cardiac conduction, which can result in heart block, may occur if administration of calcium is required to treat magnesium toxicity.CNS depressants (eg, barbiturates, narcotics)
Possible additive CNS depressant effects.Neuromuscular blocking agents
Potentiation of neuromuscular blockade.Nitrofurantoin
Decreased absorption of nitrofurantoin (oral magnesium).Penicillamine
Reduced penicillamine effects (oral magnesium).Tetracyclines
Decreased absorption of tetracyclines (oral magnesium).
Alcohol (in high concentrations), alkali carbonates and bicarbonates, alkali hydroxides, arsenates, barium, calcium, clindamycin phosphate, heavy metals, hydrocortisone sodium succinate, phosphates, polymyxin B sulfate, procaine hydrochloride, salicylates, streptomycin, strontium, tartrates, tetracycline, tobramycin.
None well documented.
Cardiac depression; circulatory collapse; hypotension; cardiac arrest.
CNS depression; depressed reflexes; muscle weakness; flaccid paralysis.
Flushing; sweating; hypothermia.
Category A .
Excreted in breast milk during parenteral use.
Use with caution; renal function impairment may lead to magnesium intoxication.
Use IV form only for immediate control of life-threatening convulsions.
Sweating, flushing, thirst, decreased deep tendon reflexes, weakness.Later signs
Sedation, loss of deep tendon reflexes, hypothermia, hypotension, heart block, respiratory paralysis.
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