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Drugs reference index «Magnesium Chloride»

Magnesium Chloride

Pronunciation: (mag-NEE-zee-uhm KLOR-ide)Class: Mineral

Trade Names:Magnesium chloride- Injection, solution, concentrate 20% (1.97 mEq/mL)

Pharmacology

Magnesium is an important activator of many enzyme systems, and deficits are accompanied by a variety of functional disturbances.

Pharmacokinetics

Distribution

Approximately 25% to 30% protein bound.

Elimination

Mainly in the urine.

Indications and Usage

Electrolyte replenisher in magnesium deficiencies.

Contraindications

Renal impairment; marked myocardial disease; comatose patients.

Dosage and Administration

Magnesium DeficiencyAdults

IV 4 g in 250 mL of dextrose 5% injection, at a rate not exceeding 3 mL/min (range, 1 to 40 g of magnesium chloride diluted appropriately).

General Advice

  • For IV administration only. Not for intradermal, IM, subcutaneous, or intra-arterial administration.
  • Do not administer if particulate matter, cloudiness, or discoloration noted.

Storage/Stability

Store at 59° to 86°F.

Drug Interactions

Cardiac glycosides (eg, digoxin)

Administer magnesium with extreme caution because serious changes in cardiac conduction, which can result in heart block, may occur if administration of calcium is required to treat magnesium toxicity.

CNS depressants (eg, barbiturates, narcotics)

Possible additive CNS depressant effects.

Neuromuscular blocking agents

Potentiation of neuromuscular blockade.

Laboratory Test Interactions

None well documented.

Adverse Reactions

Cardiovascular

Sharply lowered BP.

CNS

Stupor.

Metabolic

Hypermagnesemia.

Respiratory

Respiratory depression.

Miscellaneous

Flushing, hypothermia, sweating.

Precautions

Monitor

Monitor serum magnesium levels to guide need for continued dosage. Normal serum concentration is 1.5 to 2.5 mEq/L. Respiration and BP should be carefully observed during and after administration of magnesium chloride.

Pregnancy

Category C .

Lactation

Excreted in breast milk.

Renal Function

Use with caution; renal function impairment may lead to magnesium intoxication.

Aluminum toxicity

Some products contain aluminum. Aluminum may reach toxic levels with parenteral administration if kidney function is impaired. Premature neonates are particularly at risk.

Flushing/Sweating

Administer with caution if either occurs.

Parenteral administration

A preparation of a calcium salt should be readily available for IV injection to counteract potential serious signs of magnesium intoxication. As long as deep tendon reflexes are active, it is probable that the patient will not develop respiratory paralysis.

Overdosage

Symptoms

Decreased deep tendon reflexes, disappearance of patellar reflex, hypotension, muscle weakness, prolonged PR interval, prolonged QRS complex, prolonged QT interval, respiratory paralysis, sedation, sharp drop in BP.

Patient Information

  • Advise patient that medication will be prepared and administered by a health care provider in a hospital setting.
  • Advise patient to discontinue use and notify health care provider if dizziness, drowsiness, flushing, muscle weakness, or sweating occurs.

Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health.

  • Magnesium Chloride Sustained-Release Tablets MedFacts Consumer Leaflet (Wolters Kluwer)
  • magnesium chloride Concise Consumer Information (Cerner Multum)